CENAPT - University of Illinois at Chicago

Botanical/Natural Product Integrity

This webpage contains a series of information (e.g, links towards educative resources, articles) related to the definition of Natural Product Integrity and the relevant parameters necessary for its determination.

Table of Content

  1. NIH Resources
  2. HerbalGram Articles on Botanical Integrity
  3. Resources on Scientific Plant Names and Good Collection Practices
  4. Resources on DNA barcoding
  5. CENAPT Resources for the identification of plant powders
    - DNA barcoding protocol
    - Freely available results
    - Presentation combining phytochemical fingerprints and DNA barcoding results
  6. Worlwide accessible Pharmacopoeia or Monographs for plant-based medicinal products and dietary supplements

1. NIH Resources

link towards NCCIH Policy: Natural Product Integrity: This webpage contains information regarding requirements for NIH grant applications.
link towards ODS Resources for Product Integrity: This webpage contains a list of web-based resources and articles to guide the scientists in fulfilling the NCCIH Natural Product Policy for Dietary Supplement Research.

2. HerbalGram Articles on Botanical Integrity

These articles from the UIC Botanical Dietary Supplement Research Center define the notion of botanical integrity (BI) as resulting from the integration of Botanical, Chemical, and Biological Analyses. The first article also addresses the place and role of DNA barcoding. The second article focuses on techniques related to botanical examination (botany) and phytochemical analysis (chemistry), which are used to determine the Botanical Integrity of a given plant material.

☝︎ Table of Contents

Link for Article 1: Definition of Botanical Integrity


Botanical Integrity requires the integration of three fields of expertise: Chemistry (Phytochemistry), Botany (Identification methods), and Bioactivity (Bioactivity measurement and safety assessment).

Link for Article 2: Traditional and Modern Analytical Approaches


Combination of Analytical Techniques that Supports the Authentication and Phytochemical Characterization of Botanicals. The techniques are categorized as belonging to the botanical examination (Botany) vs phytochemical analysis (Chemistry), and are utilized to ultimately determine the Botanical Integrity (BI) of a given plant material. The more recent/modern approaches are highlighted in red, whereas the more traditional techniques are italicized.

3. Resources on Scientific Plant Names

From the relevance of accurate botanical identification and plant naming, to Good Practices and Guidelines on plant collection.
- Plant names in scientific publications
- Medicinal Plant Names Services from Kew Royal botanic gardens
- BGCI ABS Learning Tool: Tutorials from the Botanic Gardens Conservation International to learn more about access on Benefit sharing and the Nagoya Protocol.
- Good Agricultural and Collection Practices from the American Herbal Product Association and the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia.
- WHO guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices

☝︎ Table of Contents

4. Resources on DNA barcoding

  • DNA barcoding101: a really nice and educative web-resource to learn DNA barcoding and the techniques related to its implementation.
  • information on the plant DNA barcode project from the Smisthoninan National Museum of Natural History
  • Database created by the Consortium for the Barcode of life (BOL) Data Systems BOLDSYSTEMS a mine of information to find DNA sequences, primers sequences taxonomic information, and other educative resources.

5. CENAPT Resources for the identification of commercial plant powders

Dear Phytochemists, you probably always wanted to know how to perform your own DNA barcoding analyses for identifying your plant materials, but did not know where to start. Here is a step-by step detailed protocol made just for you! It is not the panacea but it has been made to help you in your first endeavours and to hook you to molecular biology ;-).

Using this protocol we analyzed six different plant materials:
- Epimedium sagittatum (leaf powder)
- Marrubium vulgare (crushed aerial parts)
- Pausinystalia johimbe (bark powder)
- Senna alexandrina (leaf powder)
- Trigonellum foenum-graecum (seed powder)
- Trifolium pratense (crushed aerial parts)

Besides, this protocol and DNA sequence results obtained with this protocol for the different plant materials are made freely available at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/M8CW8Z (Harvard Dataverse). The DNA sequence «.seq» and «.ab1» files can be analyzed using Free software such as ApE or SerialCloner.

You can also check the presentation below that combined microscopic analyses, DNA barcoding results, and phytochemical fingerprints for the botanical identification of the six commercial plant materials. Collectively, the DNA, microscopic, and phytochemical parameters can establish the botanical integrity of investigated plant materials.

DNA-based and Chemical Identification of plant powders from Center for Natural Product Technologies

6. Worlwide Pharmacopoeia resources for plant-based medicinal products and dietary supplements

World Health Organization: WHO Herbal Monographs

AFRICA: African Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2011 – Association for African Medicinal Plants Standards: 51 Herbal Monographs in 2016.

AMERICA:
United-States:
- American Herbal Pharmacopoeia:AHP with 33 monographs in 2016.
- Dietary Supplements Compendium (DSC) of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
- Herbal Medicines Compendium (HMC) of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)

ASIA:
1. Hong-Kong: Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards (KHCMMS)

2. India:
- Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (parts I – 9 vols; part II – 3 vols) – Department of Ayush, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
- Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (9 vol) containing about 1,000 monographs in 2016.
- Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India (Part 1, 2 vols) – Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
- Unani Pharmacopoeia of India (Part 1, 6 vols, Part 2, 2 vols) – Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and hooeopathym Ministry of health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

3. Japan: Japanese Pharmacopoeia

4. Korea: Korean Pharmacopoeia 11th ed., Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korea (2014)

EUROPE: European Pharmacopoeia, 9th ed., 2017

1. Germany: German Commission E Monographs over 300 herbs, compiled the commission E since 1978, translated and published in English in 1998 by the American Botanical Council [ABC].

2. Great Britain: British Herbal Compendium Vol 1 (1992), Vol 2 (2006) from the British Herbal Medicine Association, books containing 232 botanical drugs.

☝︎ Table of Contents